Howard-Sheth model



Howard-Sheth model:

          It is an integrated model. It assumes problem solving approach in buying and adopts input-output or system approach in buying.

It has four sets of variables:


(b) Perceptual and learning constructs

(c) Output

(d) Exogenous or external variables.

  • Input:-

Inputs are provided by 3 types of stimuli:

  • Significative stimuli.
  • Symbolic stimuli.
  • Social stimuli.


  • Perceptual and learning constructs:-

These constructs are psychological variables which influence the consumer decision making process.

Example: motives, attitudes & perceptions.


  • Output:-

Means purchase decision. It may be either satisfaction or dissatisfaction after purchase.


  • Exogenous or external variables:-

It indirectly influences the consumer.


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