Advertising communication always involves a perception process and four of the
elements shown in the model: the source, a message, a communication channel & a
receiver. In addition, the receiver will sometimes become a source of
information by talking to friends or associates. This type of communication is
termed word-of mouth communication and it involves social interactions
between two or more people & the important ideas of group influence & the
diffusion of information.


The source of a message in the advertising communication system is the point of
which the message originates. There are many types of “sources” in the context
of advertising, such as the company offering the product, the particular brand or
the spokesperson used.
The message refers to both the content and execution of the advertisement. It
is the totality of what is perceived by the receiver of the message. The message
can be executed in great variety of ways for e.g. the use of humor & fear
The message is transmitted through some channel from the source to the
receiver. The channel in an advertising communication system consist of one or
more kinds of media, such as radio, TV, newspaper, magazines, billboards,
point-of-purchase display, &so on. The impact of the communication can be
different for different media.
The receiver in an advertising communication system is also called the target
audience. Thus, the receiver can be described in terms of audience segmentation
variables, lifestyle, benefits sought, demographics, & so on. Of particular interest
might be the receiver’s involvement in the product & the extent to which he/she
is willing to search for and/or process information. It is the characteristics of the
receiver-the demographics, psychological, & social characteristics-that provide
the basis for understanding communication, persuasion & market processes.
The communication model in above diagram does not stop at the receiver but
allows for the possibility that the initial receiver might engage in word-of mouth
communication to the ultimate destination of the message. The receiver then
becomes an interim source & the destination becomes another receiver. Word-ofmouth
communication resulting from advertising can be a critical part of a
campaign. The reality is that for some products the absence of word-of-mouth
communication can be fatal. It is only the word-of-mouth communication that
has credibility, comprehensiveness, & impact of affect the ultimate behavior of a
portion of the audience. Advertising can actually stimulate word-of-mouth
activity, even when it cannot stimulate it, knowledge of its appropriateness and
power can be very helpful.
An advertising message can have a variety of effects upon the receiver. It can:
Create awareness
Communicate information about attributes & benefits
Develop or change an image or personality
Associate a brand with feelings & emotions
Create group norms
Precipitate behavior

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