Special Studies in Marketing Concept Testing


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1) 5 Ms of Advertising = Media, message, money, mission and measurement

2) Corporate image = mental representation or a conception of a company

3) Communication = act, process involving transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills by the use of verbal or non verbal means i.e. words, pictures, figures, graphs, gestures and facial expressions

4) Communication objective v/s marketing objective = communication is the act of carrying a message whereas marketing is a total system of interacting business activities designed to plan price, promote and distribute want satisfying products and services to the present and potential customers

5) Rational and emotional appeal = rational appeal are directed towards thinking faculty of the audience. Emotional appeal could stir up positive or negative emotions which leads to an interest in the purchase of the products

6) Advertising = any paid form of non- personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.

7) Consumer products = products of daily use such as soaps, detergents, toothpaste, and so on which have direct, regular and elastic demand

8 ) Account for advertising agency = advertising agency is an independent business organization, composed of creative and business minded people, who develop, prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services. Account means a client

9) DAGMAR = Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results/Effectiveness. It states advertising has to perform a particular communication task and the task has to be accomplished among a well-defined audience within a specified period of time

10) AIDA = Attention , Interest, Desire, Action. Advertising as a tool of marketing communication is especially meant for a group of users of product called target audience

11) Components of attitude = cognitive (knowledge, awareness and comprehension), Affective component (linking, evaluation), Conative (Action and tendency)

12) Advertising objectives based on attitude = use of persuasive process of communication as attitude change constantly and exact knowledge of consumer behavior as consumer behavior is the result of consumer attitudes

13) Steps required for developing an advertising programme = advertising objectives, prepare creative personnel and product offer-target audience, copy and layout design, copy/layout test, creative strategy and tactics

14) Public relations = philosophy and function of management expressed in policies and practices which serve the public to serve its understanding and goodwill

15) Corporate advertising = aims at creating market reputation and good image of the company among all social groups

16) Pre-testing methods for measuring effectiveness of advertising = checklist method, consumer-jury survey, sales-area test, portfolio test, mechanical/lab test

17) Post-testing methods = inquiry and coupon response, readership survey test, recall test, attitude measurement test method, sales-test method

18) Brand equity = incremental value of a business above the value of its physical assets due to the market position, achieved by its brands and the extension potential of the brand

19) Brand personality = brand develops a specific personality to the product and the brand personalities correspond to their target market personalities

20) Brand image = opinion/impression which the consumers cultivate about a particular brand provided by a manufacturer

21) Unique selling proposition = technique of differentiating quality of a product, which is easily recognizable and distinguishable from its competitors

22) Brand positioning strategies = positioning by – price and quality, product use strategy, users category, product benefits

23) Pulsing strategy = regular advertising would be made for 2 or 3 weeks followed by low advertising for a short period

24) GRP = reach * average frequency. It describes the total weight of the media effort

25) CPM = process of measuring the target audience size against the cost of that audience is called efficiency or Cost Per Thousand (CPM) and Cost Per Rating (CPR)

26) Media vehicle = instrument of the media for carrying the message to the target audience

27) Promotion mix = advertising and publicity of the product, personnel selling, sales promotion measures, public relations techniques

28) TRP = Television Rating Points. Indicates the popularity of TV programmes and enables selection for spot advertisement

29) Objectives of sales promotion = to introduce new products, attract new customers, induce present customers to buy more, help the firm remain competitive, increase sales in off season, add to the stock of the dealers

30) Consumer sales promotion tools = free samples of the product, distribution of gifts to customers, consumer contest, door to door demonstration, free trial offer


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