TYBMS Sem 6 Syllabus

Entrepreneurship and Management of Small and Medium Enterprises-
I) Concept, meaning and definition of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship.
• Importance and significance of growth of entrepreneurial activity.
• Concept of intrapreneur.
• Characteristics and qualities of entrepreneurs
• Classification and types of entrepreneurs.
• Women entrepreneurs
• Theories of entrepreneurship
• Contribution of Mc Clelland and Joseph Schumpeter

II) Factors influencing entrepreneurial development and motivation.
• Role of culture in entrepreneurial development.
• Entrepreneurial development programme (EDP), Managing the problems
faced by entrepreneurs
• Development of women entrepreneurs-with reference to SHGs
• Options available to entrepreneurs,-ancillarisation franchising and
outsourcing. Cases on takeover, mergers and acquisitions in India and at
global level.
• Social Entrepreneurship-Definition,importance and social responsibilities-
NGOs

III) Entrepreneurial Project Development
• Idea generation – sources and methods
• Identification and classification of ideas.
• Environmental Scanning and SWOT analysis
• Preparation of project plan –Points to be considered
• Components of an ideal business plan – market plan, financial plan,
operational plan, and HR plan.
• Project formulation –project report significance and contents
• Project appraisal –Aspects and methods :
(a) Economic oriented appraisal
(b) Financial appraisal
(c) Market oriented appraisal
• Technological feasibility
• Managerial competency

IV) Small and Medium Enterprises :
• Meaning and definition (evolution)
• Role and importance
• Policies governing SMEs
• Organisational structure
• Steps in setting up a small unit
• SME funding. Requirements of capital (fixed and working), Factors
determining capital requirements, Importance of fixed and working capital,
Working capital management, Sources of finance for SME’s, Taxation
benefits
• SIDBI and SISI– Their role in the development of SMEs
• Marketing mechanism in SMEs.
• Export potential of SMEs
• Problems of SMEs and prospects
• Turnaround strategies for SMEs

OPERATIONS RESEARCH
I) Introduction to OR and Linear Programming
Operations Research – Introduction, Models, Areas of Application.
Linear Programming (L.P): Mathematical Formulation of L.P.
problem. Graphical Method. Simplex Method – Concept of slack,
surplus & artificial variables. Manual solutions of L.P.P. upto 3
iterations. Minimization & Maximization Problems.
Special Cases – (i) Alternative optima (ii) Unbounded solutions & (iii)
Infeasible solutions to be shown graphically & also by simplex
method.

II) Transportation & Assignment Models
Definition of the transportation model. Balanced / Unbalanced,
Minimisation / Maximisation. Determination of the initial basic
feasible solution using (i) North-West Corner Rule (ii) Least cost
method & (iii) Vogel’s approximation method for balanced &
unbalanced transportation problems. Optimality Test & obtaining of
optimal solution. (Considering per unit transportation cost)
Assignment Problem – Hungarian method.
Statement of Transportation & Assignment Problems as L.P.
Problems.

III Network Analysis
Construction of Network – Rules & precautions.
C.P.M. & P.E.R.T. Networks. Obtaining of Critical Path. Time
estimates for activities. Probability of completion of project.
Determination of floats (total, free, independent & interfering)
Crashing of Simple networks.

IV Decision Theory And Decision Tree
• Decision Environments – risk & uncertainty. Payoff table, Regret
table.
• Decision making under uncertainty
 Maximin & maximax criteria
 Minimax Regret criterion
 Laplace criterion
 Hurwicz criterion
 Expected Monetary Value criterion.
 Expected Value of Perfect Information (E.V.P.I)
 Expected Opportunity Loss (E.O.L).
• Decision Tree (Simple examples)

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE
I) Fundamentals of International Finance
• Meaning and Scope of International Finance
• Balance of payments as determinant of demand for and supply of currency
• Exchange rate, Determinants of/factors affecting exchange rates
• Current account deficit v/s Balance of trade and their implications on exchange rate
Foreign Exchange Arithmetic I
• Exchange rate quotations, Direct and Indirect rates, cross currency rates, vehicle
currency.
• % spread, calculation of cross rates
• Classification of rates in terms of settlement (cash, tom, spot and forward),
• Arbitrage, Speculation and Trading (Spot rate arbitrage calculation)

II) Foreign Exchange Arithmetic II
• Relationship between exchange rates, interest rates, and commodity prices (through
international parity conditions namely Purchasing Power Parity, and Fisher Parity)
• Use of Covered Interest Parity theory in arbitrage, borrowing and investment
decisions.
• Calculation of forward rates through use of forward schedules, through use of
formula, annualized forward margin, calculation of swap points (calculations for cash
/ tom rates to be excluded)
Exchange Rate Regimes
• Gold Standard – Features.
• Bretton Woods System – Background and Features, reasons for its failure,
Smithsonian agreement, SDRs.
• Flexible exchange rate system – Features, Managed float, Central Bank intervention.
• Merits and Demerits of Fixed and Flexible Exchange rate systems

III) International Foreign Exchange Markets
• Characteristics
• Dealing room operations
Euro Currency Market
• Origin and reasons for the growth of Euro currency (off shore) markets, their
characteristics and components.
• A brief understanding of the Euro-currency deposit, loans, bonds and notes market.
• Concept of off shore banking as a form of globalization of the Euro currency concept,
its introduction in India, tax havens
International Equity Markets
• Concept of Depository Receipt,

Global Depository Receipt- characteristics, mechanism of issue, participants involved
• American Depository Receipt – types and characteristics
• Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds and Foreign Currency Exchangeable Bonds
• Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment
• Participatory notes
IV Foreign Exchange Management in India
• Retail and Wholesale components of the Indian foreign exchange market
• Capital account Convertibility
• Reserve Management
• Role of FEDAI in the Indian foreign exchange market.
Risk Management And Derivatives:
• Risk versus exposure
• Transaction, Translation and Economic risks faced by Corporate entities
• Transaction, Position, Pre-settlement, Settlement risks faced by commercial banks
• Internal and external hedging
• Foreign currency derivatives as instruments of risk management i.e. Forward
contracts, Swaps, Futures and Options.
• Overview of Non-deliverable forward Market (NDF market)
International Institutions
• Contribution of Bank for International Settlements in risk management system
• European Central Bank

INDIAN MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS AND PRACTICES
I) Indian Ethos
Multiplicity and variety – yet has commonness
• Focus on the ultimate Principle or Intelligence to whom (or which)
man seeks recourse.

II) Personality
Personality development through yoga – the three paths/marga –
bhakti, karma and Jnana
• The three gunas – sattva, rajas, tamas.
• Individual – a being with infinite capabilities and potentials – is a
result of your own actions
• Koshas: the concept of man
• Meditation – the technique for development of self
• Leadership: qualities of leaders with special reference to Indian
thoughts.
• Motivation – Indian approach vis-à-vis American and Japanese
approaches.

III) Society and Social Groups:
• Society – combination of individuals of diversity – values that
reflect on social practices and customs – impact on individual and
collective behaviors – uses coercion to enforce compliance –
societal values.
• Significance of festivals – harmony with nature. Indian concept of
learning – gurukul system of learning.

IV) Spirituality:
• The core teachings of all founders of religions.
• Spirituality vis-à-vis religion
• Concept of Maya (Illusion) – Advaita Vedanta
• Meaning, scope and implications at work
• Concept of Dharma: varna ashram dharma, svadharma
• Concept of karma – meaning and importance to managers, corporate
karma.
• Concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
I) Introduction
Definition of international marketing-important features of
international marketing-need for & advantages of international
marketing-difference between international & domestic marketing,
Basis of International trade.
International Business Environment
External factors: Social/ Demographic/ Economic/ Commercial/
Political & legal- Trade Barriers, meaning, Objectives, effect of
barriers on international trade, Types of barriers: Tariff & non Tariff
barriers- Trading Blocs & Growing intra regional trade- WTO & trade
liberalization-latest developments at WTO including Doha Round-
Role of MNCs in International trade, FDI

II) Product Packaging and Distribution
Packaging as a part of product planning- Functions of packaging-
Factors for package design in international markets- Criteria for
export packing (transport packing) – role of Indian Institute of
packaging- Export marking on outer packing- Purpose of export
marking , selection of overseas distribution channels, factors
influencing selection of distribution channels, types of foreign
intermediaries.

III) Pricing Policy in International Markets
Factors determining price- Export costing methods- Elements of cost-
Factors influencing pricing policy- Information required for export
pricing- Export pricing strategies- Break even pricing- Impact of
contract conditions on export price offers- INCOTERMS- Export
assistances, incentives, Govt. of India’s initiatives- Impact of export
incentives on export pricing.

IV) Overseas Market Selection
Methods of market entry, Identifying foreign markets, selecting
potential markets- Constraints in entering in some global territories-
Market selection process- Objectives entering into international
markets- Setting parameters, preliminary screening of the probable
markets- sources of information- Short listing of markets, evaluation &
selection of potential markets- Market segmentation based on overall
market profile, Basis for segmentation, Factors for segment selection,
essential characteristics of market segments- Preference available to
Indian exporters.

RETAIL MANAGEMENT 
I) Introduction:
• Meaning & Definition on retailing
Retailer’s role in a distributional channel-
• functions performed by retailers- prospects of retailing in India-
Retailers characteristics
• price-cost trade off,
• types of merchandise, variety & assortment, customer services,
• cost of offering breadth & depth of merchandise and services
Types of retailers
• food retailers, general merchandise retailers,
• non store retail formats, services retailing,
• types of ownership
Multi Channel Retailing
• meaning, the evolution toward multi channel retailing-
Franchising
• types, advantages, challenges, franchising in India.

II Retailing strategy
• Meaning
• Retail Market Strategy
• target market & retail format
• building a sustainable competitive advantage, customer loyalty, location,
human resource management, distribution and information systems,
unique merchandise, vendor relations
Multiple sources of advantages
• strategic retail planning process
Role of Information Technology in retailing

III Merchandise Management
• meaning, organizing the buying process by categories
• setting objectives for the merchandise plan
• sales forecasting, the assortment planning process
Buying merchandise
• branding options available to retailers
• private labeling, international sourcing decisions
• pricing strategy
Price Adjustments
• meaning of terms like markdowns, coupons, rebates, price bundling,
multiple unit pricing, variable pricing

IV) Store Management
• responsibilities of store managers
• store planning, location planning
• store design & the retail image mix, the space mix
• effective retail space management, store layout, floor space management
and visual merchandising and displays

INVESTMENT ANALYSIS AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ELECTIVE PAPER)
I) Introduction
• Meaning of Investment – Investment alternatives, Investment Avenues
• Meaning of Portfolio – What is Portfolio Management – Objectives,
Principles of Portfolio construction.
Investment Alternatives
• Non Marketable Financial Assets – Bonds or fixed Income securities –
Equity shares – Mutual Funds – Schemes of mutual funds (only concept of
equity scheme, Hybrid Scheme, Debt Scheme)
• Calculation of “Net Assets Value” (only Basic problem)
• Evaluation of portfolio performances
Securities Market
• Primary Equity Market, IPO, Book Building Process, Redherring
Prospectus.
• Secondary Market – Stock Markets, Trading & Settlement -Debt Market
• Role of SEBI

II) Time Value of Money
• Present Value
• Future Value
• Present Value of Annuity
• Future Value of annuity
(compounding & discounting factors concepts and simple problems based
on it)

III (i) Risk & Return
• Meaning and Types of Returns
Holding Period return–– Expected return –Annualized return –
measurement of return
• Risk – Types of Risk – Measurement of Risk
(ii) Fundamental and technical analysis

IV Equity & Debenture Valuation
• Equity: Balance Sheet Valuation – Dividend Discount Model – zero
growth – constant growth – multiple growth model – price earnings ratio
model
• Debentures: Debt Instruments – Bond valuation & Pricing – Yield to
maturity (YTM), Interest Rate Risk – Determinants of Interest Rate Risk.

ECONOMETRICS(Elective Paper)
I) Introduction to Econometrics methods and models – Definition and scope-
Nature of Econometric Approach – Methodology of Econometric research –
Specification of the models – Estimation of the Parameters of the Model –
Evaluation of the Estimates – Evaluation of the Forecasting Ability of the Model
– Desirable properties of an Econometric Model.
• Types of Models: Single Equation models with one and two explanatory
variables. Properties of OLS estimators. Co-efficient of determination of goodness
of fit – Tests of significance of Alpha & Beta – Analysis of Variance and
regression analysis

II • Problems associated with the models- autocorrelation, Multicollinearity and
heteroscedasticity.
• Simultaneous equations models – Types of models, identification, method to solve
them ILS and 2SLS.
• Simple Correlation and regression (In the form of revision) – Partial correlation –
Estimation of Partial Regression Co-efficient and Co-efficient of Partial
correlation.

III Input-Output Analysis
• The Inter-industry Accounting System – The Input Output table – Balance
equations – Input Output co-efficient – The Hawkins Simon conditions – Prices in
Leontief Input Output system.
• Assumptions of Input Output analysis – Validity of Input Output assumptions.
• Closed Model – Comparison with Leontief’s o pen static system

IV Game Theory
Introduction – Basic concepts in Game Theory – Solutions to Two – Person Zero
– sum Game – Games with saddle point (Pure Strategies) – Games without saddle
point (Mixed Strategies) – Graphical Solution (2x2game, 2xm, mx2 game)

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