Kakinada Experiment/Experience at Kakinada:
According to David McClelland the role of ‘n Ach’ is the critical factor for entrepreneurial development, which in turn leads to accelerate the tempo of economic development. According to him if the inner spirit which is the need for motivation is higher it would produce more energetic entrepreneurs who can speed economic development. He feels that the achievement motivation is nourished by ambition. In order to prove this fact, he conducted several experiments with different groups of businessmen in America, Mexico, Bombay & Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh. He tried to induce achievement motivation in adults. His aim was to provide an urge in them to improve their condition. Through the experiments he tried to induce the spirit of achievement motivation in adult & urged them to take up entrepreneurial ventures. Such an inducement was, in fact, essential to increase their level of aspirations & to give rise to confidence building character in them.
In January, 1864, a full-fledged training was organized by David McClelland at Kakinaka (Andhra Pradesh) an industrial town with high literacy with a total intake of 52 persons drawn from business & industrial community. The objectives of such programme were;
- To induce achievement motivation.
- To break the barrier of limited aspirations.
They were given orientation through the Small Industries Extention & Training Institutes (SIET), Hyderabad. The Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) included the following basis which were supposed to be accomplished by the trainees. The entrepreneurs attending the programme were encouraged to introspect, their imagination stimulated so that they could develop community goals & achieve personal motivation.
Four main items constituted the achievement development course.
- The trainee entrepreneurs were asked to control day dreaming & develop a positive attitude among themselves.
- The participants imagined themselves in need & the challenge set before themselves was to have realistic & carefully planned goals.
- They tried to attain concrete & frequent feedback.
- They watched models – heroes who performed well & tried to imitate them.
McClelland introduced TAT ( thematic appreciation test) where vague pictures were shown. The trainees were asked to interpret what they saw & explain what was happening in the picture. Achievement related themes were then counted & the final score showed the individuals desire for high achievement.
This training tries to encouraged those who have great desire to achieve something in lifer faster. The trainees exhibited a more active business behavior & to achieve they asked for longer hours too.
This Kakinada experiment is used to set up new enterprises. This is part of EDP which trains the entrepreneurs.