Entrepreneurship Supply




Kunkal’s theory of Entrepreneurship Supply:

                  John H. Kunkal advocated the theory of entrepreneurship supply. According to him, psychological & sociological variables are the main determinants for the emergence of entrepreneurs. He contemplated that entrepreneurial talent can be found in minorities, religious, ethnic, migrated, displaced elites & these minorities have supplied most fo the entrepreneursm in the society. Entrepreneurism can be dependent upon the following structures in the economy.

  1. Demand structure.
  2. Limitation structure.
  3. Labour structure.
  4. Opportunity structure.


  1. Demand structure: It implies economic demand with relation to changes in economic development & government polices. Demand structure can be augmented with the help material rewards which can influence entrepreneurial behavior.
  2. Limitation structure: It is originally socio-cultural in character. In this structure, entrepreneur is regarded as the most deviant individual in the society & that’s why the society restricts specific activities that influence all members in the society.
  3. Labour structure: It refers to the supply of skilled & willing labour. The structure is governed by a large numbers of factors such as racial stock, available job alternatives, traditionalism, mobility of labour etc.
  4. Opportunity structure: It is the most important structure governing the supply of entrepreneurs. The structure refers to the technological & managerial skills, information about techniques of production, market structure & supply of capital.


             Thus, J.H Kunkel in his behaviourial model depicted that entrepreneurial supply is concerned with overtly depressed activities of individuals & their relations to the previously & presently surrounding social structure & physical conditions. This behavourial model is based upon the following premises.

  1. Man’s internal state.
  2. Conditioning procedure, determinant of activities: the behavioural model of Kunkel depicts that the determinant of an individual activities are to be found largely in the conditioning procedure, both deliberate  & accidental to which he has been subjected in the past.



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