An MNC is a commercial concern set up in one country having its base in that country (which is called the home country) & has its operations in many other countries (Host countries).
At least 25% of the world production of that concern is raised outside the home country. The MNCs are found in the field of manufacturing commodities, producing services & in the field of trade.
The MNCs confer several benefits on the host countries. The prominent amongst them are as follow:-
1. Raising the level of investment
A developing economy is caught in vicious circle of low level investment. The National income is low, the population is large. The effect is that the per capita income is low besides a part of that income is invested in unproductive assets, such as Gold & silver; therefore the productive investment is low. The rate of economic growth is slow. Addition to national income is low. Thus, the national income shows a tendency to remain at a low level.
The MNCs are helpful in breaking this vicious circle. They inject some capital into the developing economy. This is supplementary to own investment of the developing economies. The level of investment rises, the rate of economic growth rises. Thus, the MNCs are instrumental in expanding economic growth of the developing economies.
2. Carrying modern Technologies to developing economies
In any country the production is largely determined by the technology used. A developing economy has a comparatively backward technology. It is not able to send adequate amount of money on scientific research. The level of technology is also determined by the size of the marked. In less developed countries, the market for the goods excepting necessaries, is relatively small. The turnover is small. Consequently, the producers are not able to spend on research & introduce innovations.
The MNCs have most modern technology at their disposal. They carry that technology to the developing countries. The local producers belonging to the host countries are able to learn modern technology from MNC. They can also improve their technology.
3. Balancing the Balance of Payments
In general, the developing countries are confronted with the problem of a deficit in the Balance of payment. The MNCs are helpful in curing the deficit in BoP in two ways:-
- MNCs bring in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the developing economy. This is an incoming payment which is helpful in reducing the deficit in the BoP.
- The MNCs have a high world wide reputation. Their products have a world wide market. A developing country can export them to near by countries & earn foreign exchange. This is also helpful in balancing the BoP.
4. Work discipline
The MNCs maintain a very high level of discipline amongst workers. They take care to maintain a high level of physical fitness & motivation. The workers employed in MNCs units carry that discipline to the local work force.
5. Catalytic Agent
The MNCs set up units mostly in basic & heavy industries. They purchase raw materials in the local markets; this increases the demand for raw materials & provides an incentive to the producers of the raw materials to increase their production. The workers employed in the MNCs spend their income on goods & services; this increases the demand for several goods & services, their production is increased. Many workers are employed in their production. Thus, the total increase in employment is a multiple of the initial addition to employment in the MNC unit.
6. Benefits to consumers
The MNCs are very particular about maintaining the high standard of their products. They bring out high quality goods. They are able to sell those goods at reasonable prices. Because, they produce them on large scale, the consumers belonging to the developing countries get the benefit of high quality goods at affordable price.
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