Q. Write short notes on any three.


a) Job Description                             b) Training Needs Analysis               c) Employee Manual

d)  Organization Downsizing            e) Team Effectiveness                                 


Ans a. Job Description: Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It serves to identify a job for continuation by other job analysts. It tells us what should be done, why it should be done and where it should be performed.

–       The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships.

–       The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position, duties etc.

–       More specific words should be selected to show (a) the kind of work (b) the degree of complexity (c) the degree of skill required (d) the extend to which problems are standardized (e) the degree and type of accountability. (f) Supervisory responsibility should be shown to the incumbents. (g) The basic requirement, experience, works wise, age qualifications etc., should be stated very clearly.


And b. Training Needs Analysis: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational analysis, job analysis and manpower analysis. Training programme, training methods and course content are to be planned on the basis of training needs. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which is lacking attitude/aptitude, knowledge and skill.


Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees Specifications


Methods used in Training Need Analysis.


Sr. Group or Organizational Analysis Individual Analysis
1. To identify Organizational goals and objectives Performance appraisal
2. Personnel/skill inventories Work sampling
3. Organizational Climate indices Interviews
4. Efficiency indices Questionnaires
5. Exit interviews Attitude survey
6. MBO or work planning systems Training progress
7. Quality circles Rating scales
8. Customer survey/satisfaction data Observation of behavior
9. Consideration of current and projected changes  


Ans. c. Employee Manual: The Employee Manual is a document that an employee can refer to for any kind of query about the rules and guidelines of an organization.  The Employee Manual contains the following :

  • History, growth, organisation and management, products, market, customers etc. of the company.
  • Basic conditions of employment – hours of work, shift, holidays, retirement benefits.
  • Pay, allowances, deductions.
  • Sickness rules, information – pay – sick leave.
  • Leave rules – casual, special, earned – holidays, vacation.
  • Work rules – work-load, use of materials, equipment, and machine.
  • Disciplinary rules and procedure.
  • Grievance procedure.
  • Career path, promotion channel.
  • Unions, negotiating machinery.
  • Education, training and development facilities.
  • Health, Safety, medical care arrangements.
  • Canteen and restaurant facilities.
  • Social benefits and welfare measures.
  • Telephone calls and correspondence.
  • Traveling and subsistence expenses.
  • Uniforms, clothing.
  • Various employees – their designations – position in the organisation.


Ans d. Organisational Downsizing: When there is a surplus of labour the organization is faced with a problem of downsizing the organization. Because maintaining surplus of labour will eat into the profits of theCo. It is not easy to pay employees without extracted work from them. In such cases the organization is faced with a problem of using the existing surplus for some higher category of work by giving them training or employing them with their sister concern or simply giving the employees a golden handshake through Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). Another way of downsizing is delayering the organization and rectifies the situation of overstaffing.


Ans e. Team Effectiveness: Team effectiveness is the result of team work which consists of a group of jobs that are linked and interconnected with each other for the purpose of performing a total operation. The total operation is assigned to a group of employees.  Though each employee is allotted a job in the team, he is expected to take up the job of other employees when they fail to do it perfectly. Thus jobs in a team overlap with each other. Teamwork gains more significance rather than individual jobs. In fact individual jobs are losing their relevance in the re-engineered businesses, organizations based on supply chain management. Team effectiveness is essential to serve the customer completely. These days’ organizations started designing teams and analyzing team work.  Most recent organization has realized that teamwork produces better results than the performance of individual work. Infact practices of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Business Process Re-engineering (BPRE) and Supply Chain Management require teamwork. The impact of synergy results in high productivity of teamwork than that of the total of individual employees. Team effectiveness pertains to minimum acceptable human qualities and relationships necessary to perform all kinds of activities in a team.


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