Two-Factor Theory  (Herzberg)



Fredrick Herzberg states that the motivation concept is generally driven by two factors of motivators of job satisfactions and hygiene factors about job dissatisfaction. Motivators are generally achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth, which are related to job satisfaction. Hygiene factors deal with external factors like company policy, supervision, administration and working conditions, salary, status, security and interpersonal relations. These factors are known as hygiene factors or job dissatisfiers, job context factors.

Advantages – tremendous impact on stimulating thought on motivation at work, increased understanding of role of motivation, specific attention to improve motivational levels, job design technique of job enrichment is contribution of herzberg, double dimensions of two factors are easy to interpret and understand.


Disadvantages – Limited by its methodology, reliability questioned, it focuses more on job satisfaction not on motivation, no overall measure of satisfaction utilized, inconsistent with previous research, productivity factor ignored.

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