Explain process of career planning programme?
Ans. It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. It is dependent on a number of personnel factors. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concept is given only lip service and theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out their employees, it must plan the career development programmes continuously and effectively in its organization.
Details of the Steps / Stages in Career Planning and Growth / Development :
1. Analysis of Personnel Situation : This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planers to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order to analyse the present career situation, the following information will be required :
(i) Total number of employees – their age distribution, qualifications, positions, specializations, etc.
(ii) Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade.
(iii) Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise)
(iv) Span of control available within the organization.
(v) Field staff and staff at head office with necessary details, and
(vi) Facilities available for training and development within and outside the organization.
The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period.
2. Projection of personal situation : In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan.
3. Identifying of Career Needs : In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials, and appraisal of employees). In addition, more details can be collected through discussions with personnel responsible for personnel administration. Identification of career needs of the organization creates proper background for the preparation of career development plan.
4. Selection of Priorities : It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan. Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of empl0oyees and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. For this, certain techniques such as cost-benefit analysis, organizational analysis, cost-effectiveness and work measurement can be used. Priorities need to be decided properly as the career development plan is to be adjusted accordingly.
5. Development of career plan : This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan Such plan must describe the following in concrete form / forms :
(a) What is to be attained / achieved?
(b) The extent to which it is to be attained,
(c) The employees involved,
(d) The department in which the proposed plan will operate;
(e) The length of time required the achieving the goals.
In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should :
(a) introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to :
(i) improve their level of skill and knowledge;
(ii) gain wider experiences, and
(iii) assume higher responsibilities.
(b) establish and effectively implement a system of study leave;
(c) develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation from one region to another;
(d) take positive steps to encourage career development, such as :
(i) providing appropriate training facilities and opportunities;
(ii) giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for :
(1) promotion within the organization;
(2) transfer within the organisation;
(3) outside recruitment.
(iii) removing artificial barriers to promotion;
(iv) establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cum-seniority basis;
(v) realistically assessing the duties and responsibilities of posts with a view to assuring their correct classification;
(vi) ensuring full participation by representatives designated by the employees in matters relating to training, promotion, etc.
6. Write-up of Formulated Plan : After deciding the priorities of career development plan, the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. This write-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan), procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful.
7. Monitoring planning i.e. monitoring of career development plan : Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. Expected results / benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. The gap between the two (i.e. short falls) can be located quickly. In addition, suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. Monitoring ensures that the target are achieved as per the time schedule prepared. The shortfalls, if any, are detected promptly for suitable remedial measures.
8. Implementation (of career development plan) : Implementation / execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. For effective implementation, co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. Suitable implementing machinery needs to be created for the execution purpose. The career development plan is to be implemented by the personnel / HRD department. However, financial and administrative support is also necessary.
9. Review and Evaluation of Career plans : A plan needs periodical review. Such evaluation avoids mistakes, deficiencies, etc. during the implementation stage. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Such evaluation should be done by experts. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. It is also desirable to review the benefits available from career development plans to the individual employees and the organizations.
10. Future Needs : This is the last step / stage of the current career development plan and the first step / stage of the next plan. Here, on the basis of the achievements of the current plan, the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organisation) are estimated. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Planning is a continuous process / activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organisation. Along with the evaluation of current plan, the future needs need to be estimated for the preparation of the next career development plan. This new plan will also follow the steps as explained above.