To discriminate means to distinguish one object from another. Employment discrimination is treating one person better than another because of their age, gender, race, religion or other protected class status.
a) Recruitment Practices: Firms that rely solely on the word-of-mouth referrals of present employees to recruit new workers only from those racial and sexual groups that are already represented in their labour force. When desirable job positions are advertised only in media that are not used by minorities or women or are classified as for men only, recruitment would also tend to be discriminatory.
b) Screening Practices: Screening is said to be discriminatory when the parameters required are such as which are not relevant to the job to be performed. Interviews for the jobs are said to be discriminatory if the interviewer disqualifies certain class of people for reason not related to work. E.g. the occupation is not suitable for women, etc.
c) Promotion Practices: Promotion, job progression & transfer practices are discriminatory when employer place males on job tracks separate from those open to women & minorities.
d) Dismissal: Firing on employee on the basis of her/his race or sex is a clear form of discrimination; though not as serious as an offence but the same is considered as discriminative.
e) Condition of Employment: Many times equal wages & salaries are not given to employees performing essentially similar tasks. Another issue is related to fair wages and treatment to workers.