The word motivation is derived from ‘motive’, which means an active form of a desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. These ‘others’ are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives.




According to George R. Terry, “Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action.”

In the words of Robert Dubin, it is “the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization”. Viteles defines motivation as “an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium, by satisfying the need.”

According to Encyclopedia of Management. “Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness.”

On the basis of above definitions, the following observations can be made regarding motivation:

  • Motivation is an inner psychological force, which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner.
  • The motivation process is influenced by personality traits, learning abilities, perception and competence of an individual.
  • A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others.
  • Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. It is a tension of lacking something in his mind, which forces him to work more efficiently.
  • Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelising the energy of an individual for achieving set goals.
  • Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction, which may lead to higher efficiency.
  • Motivating force an^ its degree, may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality, needs, competence and other factors.
  • The process of Motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior.
  • Motivation may be positive as well as negative. Positive motivation includes incentives, rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment, fear, use of force etc.
  • The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale.
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