Q. 1) Concepts:
1) SRT GunasSatwa Satwa is Tranquility. Satwa attaches one to happiness. Satwa results in Jnana or the “light of knowledge.” One attains to the spotless reasons (and is born amongst Jnanis or those who know the highest, like the Brahmavids or the knowers of “Brahman”), when one dies while dwelling in Satwa. Brahmavids, or knowers of Brahman, dwell in Brahman, which is of the nature of delight. In other words, spotless “Brahma Loka” is where Brahmavids delight in Brahman.
Rajas Rajas is Activity. It is of the nature of “desire” or “passion,” and of “deep thirst.” For example, a deep thirst for sexual gratification is fundamental in human psyche. Rajas also is the reason of “greed.” Rajas attaches one to action, and results in pain. If one dies while dwelling in Rajas, one is born amongst those who are “attached” to work (or too much activity).
Tamas Tamas is Lethargy. When Tamas predominates, one becomes lazy, sleepy, indolent, etc. Tamas results in the “darkness of ignorance.” While dying, if one dwells in Tamas, one is born again amongst the deluded.
2) Inner personality
Answer – Definition of Personality
3) Concept of Koshas
According to yoga, individual consciousness is a partial expression of cosmic consciousness. Essentially, cosmic consciousness and individual consciousness are one. Only subjectivity separates them. Consciousness is the ultimate reality out of which mind and matter proceed. In the broad spectrum from minerals to man there are various levels in which consciousness exists. Of all existing bodies that express themselves through behaviour, the human body is the most highly evolved. It is capable of self-expression and the realization of Truth beyond the realm of sensory perception. With the help of memory, imagination and intuition, the human organism can understand laws inherent in nature and use them for its growth and development.
Self seated in Sheath of Bliss (Anandamayi Kosha)
Sheath of Ego and Intellect (Vigyanamayi Kosha)
Sheath of Mind (Manomayi Kosha)
Sheath of Vital Air (Pranamayi Kosha)
Sheath of Matter (Annamayi Kosha)
Society is an organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. It is a body of individuals living as members of a community. The body of human beings generally, associated or viewed as members of a community: the evolution of human society. It is a highly structured system of human organization for large-scale community living that normally furnishes protection, continuity, security.
5) Self Management
Self-management is a key skill that will help you throughout your life. It involves setting goals and managing your time. Developing your motivation and concentration skills will help you to overcome the lure of procrastination. A key skill in self-management is self regulation. Self-regulation refers to individuals monitoring, controlling and directing aspects of their learning for themselves.
Q.3) Analyse the Ashtang Yoga of Patanjali. What are its advantages? – 10 marks
Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras
Patanjali, an ancient sage, defined yoga as the ‘restraining of thought waves’. He compiled ‘Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras’, the aphorisms of yoga, in which he provides an eight-limbed approach for the well-being and purification of body, mind and soul. This eight-limbed approach, known as Ashtanga Yoga, is not to be mistaken as a step-by-step approach but a multidimensional approach in which all eight limbs are practised simultaneously.
The Eight Limbs of Yoga
Yamas and its complement, Niyamas, represent a series of ‘right living’ or ethical rules.
Yamas – the five social ethics
- Ahimsa – Non-violence in action, speech and thoughts
- Satyam – Truthfulness in intention, remaining established in the higher truth
- Asteya – Non-stealing
- Brahmacharya – Divine conduct, celibate when single, faithful when married
- Aparigraha – Not accumulating things unnecessarily and not desiring things that belong to others.
Niyamas – the five personal ethics
- Saucha – Cleanliness of the body and mind
- Santosha – Contentment, remaining happy
- Tapas – Austerity and self-discipline
- Swadhyaya – Study of the Self, abiding in the Self
- Ishwarapranidhana – Surrendering to God, honouring the Divine.
Asanas – Yoga postures or postures.
Pranayamas – Proper regulation of life force (Prana) through certain breathing techniques.
Pratayahara – Taking the senses inwards.
Dharana – One-pointed focus.
Dhyana – Meditation.
Samadhi – the highest state of consciousness. This is possible to achieve during meditation.
Q.4) What do use mean by motivation? What are the distinguishing features of Western and Indian styles of motivation? – 10 marks
Q. 5) Explain the distinctive characteristics of Indian Ethos and their relevance to professional managers. – 10 marks.
Q. 6) Short Notes – 10 marks
a) Types of Leadership
Answer —- Explain the Types of Leadership
Answer —- What is Swadharma?
Answer —- Explain the Purusharthas?
d) Varna System –
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