The seven steps of comprehensive model of change are as follows:



Recognize need for change

The first step in this model is recognizing need for change. For marketing managers who anticipate needed . change, recognition is likely to come much earlier, as a result of marketing forecasts indicating new market potential, expert indications about impending socio-economic change or a perceived opportunity to capitalize on a key technological breakthrough. These managers tend to ‘initiate change because they expect it to be necessary in the near future in any case’.


Establish goals for change

The manager must then set goals for the proposed change. It is important for the manager to specify goals that the change is supposed to accomplish. The goals can be set to maintain or increase the market standing, to enter new markets, to restore employee morale, to reduce turnover, to settle a strike and to identify good investment opportunities.


Diagnose relevant variables

An important next step is diagnosing organizational variables that have brought about the need for change. Turnover, for example, may be caused by a variety of factors such as low pay, poor working conditions, poor supervision, better alternatives in the job market or employee job dissatisfaction etc. Thus, if turnover is the recognized stimulus for change, the manager must understand what has caused it in a particular situation in order to make the right changes. To carry out this diagnosis, the manager may discuss the situation with employees and other managers.


Select change intervention

After the manager has developed an understanding of the problem and its causes then he must select a change intervention that will accomplish the intended goal. An intervention is a specific change induced in an organization with the intention of solving a particular problem or accomplishing a specific objective. For example, if turnover is caused by low pay, then a new reward system is required and if the cause is poor supervision then interpersonal skills and training for supervisors is required.


Plan implementation of change

The manager must then carefully plan the implementation of change. Planning the implementation of change involves consideration of the cost of the change, how the change will affect other areas of the organization and the degree to


which employees should participate in bringing about the change. Hastily implemented change can result in more harm than benefit. For example, if the change involves the use of new equipment, the manager should not make any changes that rely on the use of new equipment until it has arrived and been installed and workers know how to use it. Moreover, if change is thrust upon them too quickly, their resistance may stiffen.


Implement change

A systematically implemented change is more likely to proceed smoothly and to encounter fewer obstacles than is a change that is implemented too quickly and without adequate preparation.


Evaluate implementation

Finally, after the change has been implemented, the manager should verify that it has accomplished its intended goals. A change may fail to bring about the intended results. This may be due to inappropriate goals or inaccurate diagnosis of the situation or wrong selection of intervention.

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