Transportation infrastructures consist of:
- The rights-of-way – Roads, Rail Network, Airports, etc. are called as rights of way. Without this infrastructure transportation cannot take place. This infrastructure is usally provided by the government.
- Carrier organizations
That offer transportation services on hire basis or internal basis. The nature infrastructure required determines the mode of transportation that would be adopted by the company.
Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers or railroad cars that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift on lift off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo.
RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently “rolled on” and “rolled off’ the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances still often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels. The ramps and doors may be stern-only or bow and stern for quick loading.
The lighter aboard ship (BASH) system refers to the practice of loading barges (lighters) aboard a larger vessel for transport. It was developed in response to a need to transport lighters, a type of unpowered barge, between inland waterways separated by open seas. Lighters are typically towed or pushed around harbors, canals or rivers and cannot be relocated under their own power. The carrier ships are known variously as LASH carriers, barge carriers, kangaroo ships or lighter transport ships.
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