1. Leadership: Leadership is a process of influencing the activities of an individual or group for goal -achievement in a given situation. Through this process, individual or group contributes willingly to the goal -achievement. Effective supervisors perform functions related to leadership instead of doing the same work as the subordinates do. This style of supervision leads to higher morale and more productivity. The leadership process will be described later in detail.
  2. Closeness of Supervision: The degree of closeness of supervision may vary from highly close -supervision to highly free-.supervision. Successful supervisors follow the style of less close supervision. A closed supervision is defined as frequently checking up on .subordination, providing them frequent and detailed instruction, and limiting their freedom to perform the work in their own way. Normally close supervisor causes low morale and motivation because it blocks the gratification of some strongly felt needs of subordinates. Less close supervision, on the other hand produces motivation and morale, which are essential for high productivity.
  3.  Employee -orientation or Human Relations: Taking into account both employees and work being performed by them, there can be two style employee-oriented and production-oriented. The employee-oriented style stresses the relationship aspects .of employee’s jobs. It emphasizes that every individual is, important and takes interest in every one, accepting their individuality and. personal need. Production-oriented style emphasizes production and .technical aspects of the jobs and employees are taken as tools for accomplishing the jobs. Effective supervisors follow employee-oriented style and take more personal interest in their men, understand their problems, and punish them less frequently when mistakes occur.
  4. Group cohesiveness: Effective supervision relates to group cohesiveness. Group cohesiveness is characterized by the group situation in which all members work together for a common goal, or where every one is ready to take responsibility for group chores. Groups with high cohesiveness produce more as compared to groups with less cohesiveness.
  5. Delegation: Though delegation of authority is applicable to all types of superior- subordinate relationships and all levels of management, it becomes important at the supervision level because supervision management is considered to be the last level for delegation of authority.
  6. Other Factors: There are certain other factors, besides the above, which go to make the supervision effective. Fro example, supervisors who can influence their superiors and satisfy the needs of their Subordinates for promotion recognition, and work-center benefits are considered better by their subordinates. They inspire higher morale in work groups and more satisfaction to the employees. They also perform functions like on-the-job training, informing their subordinates their duties and relevant organization matters, and present model behavior for their subordinates
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