Effect of Ecological Imbalance on Air:
The industries, automobiles, forest fires and domestic combustion are the major sources of air pollution.
The air pollutants discharged from industries and power houses include gases like SO2, CO, CO2, H2S, NO, NO2, etc. and traces of ethylene, acetylene and propylene. Smoke, smog, PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate) is also the air pollutants from industries.
The air pollutants released from automobile exhausts include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. The PCB’s are released into atmosphere when synthetic rubber tyres rub against road.
Consequences of air pollution.
- Inhaling SO2 causes various respiratory disorders; oxides of nitrogen can cause internal bleeding, pneumonia, cancer, etc. Carbon monoxide is a highly poisonous and lethal gas. Similarly, ozone and PAN also cause dry throat, cough, etc.
- Fumes of toxic metals are extremely harmful. Lead damages brain of young children and in adults; it affects blood, liver, kidney and nervous system. Mercury vapours can cause skin and neurological problems. Dust of coal, asbestos, etc. causes respiratory problems.
- Gases like SO2, NO2, O3, PAN, etc. cause injury and damage to various economically important plants resulting in great economic loss. In general, air pollutants cause necrosis, premature leaf and fruit fall, affect various metabolic processes, etc. in different plants.
- Mosses and lichens are highly sensitive to air pollution by SO2. These plants are killed even with slightest SO2 pollution of air. Hence, these act as bioindicators of air pollution.