Cell structure and functions of cell organelles, Cell inclusions, Nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) Cell cycle (Mitosis, Meiosis), Genetic code, types of RNA and protein synthesis .
Bio-molecules : organic and inorganic biomolecules.
Types of plant tissues, internal structure of Dicote monocot root , stem and leaves , Secondary growth in Monocot & Dicot.
Structure of flower, Types of inflorescence, reproduction in plants, polyembryony, Apomixis,
Alternation of generation, Fruits and seeds, Important characters of families (Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Solonaceae, Liliaceae, Poaceae, and Leguminosae), Floral formula, floral diagram and economic importance.
Water relations, Osmosis, DPD, Plasmolysis, Water potential Absorption of water, Ascent of sap, Transpiration, Guttation, Stomatal movement.
Plant nutrition : macro-nutrients, micronutrients and their functions.
Photosynthesis, types of pigments, light and dark reaction, C4 cycle, Chemosynthesis Law of limiting factor, factors affecting photosynthesis, Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
Photosynthesis : Pigments, Light reaction : Electron Transport, Cyclic and non-cyclic photo phosphorylation, chemiosmotic hypothesis, C3 and C4 cycle. Factor affecting photosynthesis. Calvin cycle, photorespiration.
Respiration: types of respiration , Glycolysis , Krebs cycle and Oxidative phosphorylation, Respiratory quotient ( R.Q.), Fermentation.
Enzymes, classification, mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme activities
Plant growth and development : Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. Growth regulation in plants by Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ethylene, Abscisic acid. Photoperiodism, Vernalisation and seed dormancy.
Types of pollution, Global warming, Green house effect, Acid rains, Alnino effect, ozone depletion Biodiversity, Sanctuaries, National parks, Endangered species, Deforestation, Bio communities,
Ecosystem, Food chains, ecological pyramids, wild life and its conservation, Biogeochemical cycles.
Structure and function of animal tissues, Various systems of human, human population and health, immune system, tissue and organ transplantations, Bio-treatment Techniques.
Regulation in animal : Nervous system, Endocrine system and hormones.
Human Physiology : Digestion and absorption, Breathing, Circulatory system, Excretory system, locomotion and movement, Neural control and coordination, chemical coordination and integration.
External and internal structure of Amoeba, Plasmodium, Earthworm, Cockroach and Frog.
Heredity and Evolution, Darwinism, Neo Darwinisim, Lamarckism, Natural selection and Adaptation, Concepts of species and speciation. Palentological evidences and morphological evidences of evolution
Genetics and heredity : Molecular basis of heredity. Mendelism, Linkage, Crossing over, hybridization, sex determination and sex linked inheritance, Blood groups, Rh factor, Mutation.
Biotechnology : Genetic engineering Recombinant DNA Technology its Tools and Techniques, Gene Cloning, DNA Amplification by PCR, Tools and Techniques of Gene Transfer.
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture, medicine. Transgenic animals and plants. Ethical issues, Biopiracy.
Taxonomy of animals, Five kingdom system, Characteristics upto class level with suitable example. Symmetry, Coelom, segmentation and embryogenesis.
Taxonomy of plants: Eukaryota, Prokaryota, Virus, Prion, Mycoplasma, Lichens and elementary knowledge of Ulothrix, Riccia and Pteridium
Embryology of animals, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, fertilization, Cleavage, Gastrulation, organogenesis and fate of three germinal layers, test tube baby, embroyonic development in human, placenta, specific aspect of development.
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