Motivation is the need or drive within an individual that drives him or her towards goal-oriented action. The extent of drive depends on the perceived level of satisfaction that can be achieved by the goal.


According to Hellriegel and Slocum, Motivation is “a predisposition to act in a specific goal directed manner.”

According to Gibson, Motivation may be defined as “the state of an individual’s perspective which represents the strength of his or her propensity to exert effort toward some particular behavior.”

These definitions have several common denominators to help us characterize the motivation phenomenon:

  1. An internal need energizes and activates behavior;
  2. Drive is the inner force that propels behavior in a specific direction;
  3. Goals are the incentives or payoffs that reinforce private satisfactions that in turn reinforce the perpetuation of needs.
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