Holding costs, also called carrying costs, are the costs that result from maintaining the inventory. Inventory in excess of current demand frequently means that its holder must provide a place for its storage when not in use. This could range from a small storage area near the production line to a huge warehouse or distribution center. A storage facility requires personnel to move the inventory when needed and to keep track of what is stored and where it is stored. If the inventory is heavy or bulky, forklifts may be necessary to move it around.
Storage facilities also require heating, cooling, lighting, and water. The firm must pay taxes on the inventory, and opportunity costs occur from the lost use of the funds that were spent on the inventory. Also, obsolescence, pilferage (theft), and shrinkage are problems. All of these things add cost to holding or carrying inventory.