Q. a. What steps should an organization take to make training more effective?



Ans a. The important steps for a training to be effective are as follows:


  1. Preparing the Instructor: The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the training losing plan. For each part one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction i.e. whether a particular point is best taught by illustration, demonstration or explanation.


a)    A serious and committed instructor must :

  1. Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach
  2. Have the aptitude and ability to teach
  3. Have willingness towards the profession
  4. Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership
  5. Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods
  6. Be a permanent student, in the sense that he should equip himself with the latest concepts and knowledge.


  1. Preparing the Trainee: The trainee should be made at ease. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task. Though the instructor may have executed the training programme many times he or she should never forget the newness to the trainee. The quality of empathy is a mark of a good instructor.


  1. Getting ready to Teach : This stage of the programme is class hour teaching involving the following activities :

–       Planning the programme

–       Preparing the instructors outline

–       Too much material much be avoided

–       The session should move logically

–       Each item should be discussed in depth.

–       Repetition should be in different words.

–       The material should be taken from standardized text

–       When the standardized text is not available then the programme should be developed based on group approach consisting of employer, skilled employees, supervisors, trade union leaders and others familiar with the job requirements.

–       Teach about the standard for trainee like quality, quantity, waste or scrap, ability to work without supervision, knowledge or procedure, safety rules, human relations etc.


  1. Presenting the Operation: There are various alternative ways of presenting the operations viz. explanation, demonstration. An instructor mostly uses these methods of explanation. In addition one may illustrate various points through the uses of picture, charts diagrams and other training aids.


  1. Try out the Trainees Performance: As a continuation of the training sequence, the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it, particularly if the operation involves any danger. The trainee through repetitive practice shall acquire more skills.


  1. Follow Up: The final step in most training procedures is the follow-up when people are involved in any problem or procedure it is unwise to assume that things are always constant. Follow up can be adapted to a variable re-enforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles. Every training programme should have a follow up to improve on the future programmes.


Q b. Critically examine Herzberg’s two factor theory.


Ans. b. Herzberg Theory of motivation deals with basically two factors.


DISSATISFIERS: The first group (factor) consists of needs such as company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security and personal life. These factors he called “DISSATISFIERS” and not motivators. Their presence or existence does not motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction, but their absence would result in dissatisfaction. They are also known as hygiene factors.


SATISFIERS: The second group are the”satisfiers’ in the sense that they are motivators which are related to job content. It includes factors of achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in job. Their presence yields feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction but not dissatisfaction.


Another WAY to present the above question


Ans b. Herzberg’s Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors


Sr. Maintenance Factors or Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors or Satisfiers
1. Job Content Job Content
2. Extrinsic Factors Intrinsic Factors
3. Company Policy and Administration Achievement
4. Quality of supervision Recognition
5. Relations with superiors Advancement
6. Peer Relations Work Itself
7. Relations with subordinates Possibility of Growth
8. Pay Responsibility
9. Job security  
10. Work Conditions  
11. Status  
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