A brand is defined: “As a name, term, sign, symbol or special design or some combination of these elements that is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of sellers. A brand  differentiates  these  products  from  those  of  competitors”  (American Marketing Association, Chicago).

•Brand  name is that part that can be spoken, including letters, words and numbers, i.e. 7UP. Brand names simplify shopping, guarantee a certain level of quality and allow for self-expression

•Brand mark-elements of the brand that cannot not be spoken, i.e.symbol

•Trade Character i.e. Ronald McDonald, Pillsbury Doughboy

•Trade  mark-legal  designation  that  the  owner  has  exclusive  rights  to  the  brand  or part  of  a brand.1990,  US  Patent  & Trademark  Office  had  680,000  trademarks registered, 56,515 new in that year.

•Trade  name-The full legal name of the organization. I.e. Ford, not the name for a specific product.


Attributes of Brand


Values: The values, which govern a producer,  are reflected by the brand,  thus Tata stand for quality, fair price and so on.


Culture: A brand also represents a certain culture, e.g., Coke is an icon of American culture, while Shilpa Bindis are typically Indian.


Personality:  A brand  projects  a  personality.  Had  the  brand  been  an  animal  or  an object or a person, what would come to our mind?


Like  Videocon  suggests  a  lion,  MRF  suggests  a  muscle  man  and  Rin  suggests  a lighting  flash. Sometimes  a brand  may take on the personality  of an actual person, e.g., Charlie Chaplin and Cherry Blossom.


User: The brand suggests its own target audience. We know what a Garden Woman is. We  know  that  Sunny  is  for  teenagers.  We  expect  a  Mercedes  to  be  driven  by  an executive or a top-class businessman. These users correspond to the values, culture and personality of the  brand. Because  of  the  imagery  associated  with  the  brands  they actually  have  the  power  to  enhance  or  limit  a consumer’s perceived image or self- image.



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