Fundamentals of Research:

  1. Meaning,
  2. Objectives,
  3. Significance.


Types of Research:

  1. Basic research,
  2. Applied,
  3. Descriptive,
  4. Historical,
  5. Exploratory,
  6. Experimental,
  7. Ex-post-factor
  8. Case study approach.


Approaches to Research:

  1. Quantitative approach – Inferential, Experimental, Simulation
  2. Qualitative approach – Ethnographic, Phenomenological, Field research.


Importance of research in management decisions:

  1. Various areas of research in business-
  2. Marketing research
  3. Government policies and economic systems
  4. Social relationship
  5. Planning and operational problems of research in business.


Research process:

  1. Selecting the topic,
  2. Defining the research problem,
  3. Objectives of research,
  4. Literature survey,
  5. Sample design,
  6. Data collection,
  7. Execution of project,
  8. Analysis of data and hypothesis testing,
  9. Generalization and interpretation and preparation of research report.


Features of good research:

Research design:

  1. Meaning,
  2. Need,
  3. Features of good research design,
  4. Types of research design: Exploratory, descriptive, casual.



  1. Meaning,
  2. Importance and types,
  3. Formulation of hypothesis and testing of hypothesis.
  4. Chi-square test,
  5. Correlation coefficient,
  6. Regression analysis.



  1. Meaning,
  2. Sample,
  3. Sampling,
  4. Essentials of a good sample,
  5. Sample size


Methods of sampling:

  1. Probability sampling – cluster, stratified, multi-stage
  2. Non-probability sampling – purposive, quota, convenience.


Sources and methods of data collection:

Primary and secondary data:

  1. Primary sources – observation, interview, questionnaire, interview schedules.
  2. Secondary sources- Data processing, tabulation, data analysis and interpretation
  3. Report writing – layout of research report.



Reference Books:

  1. Research Methodology – Methods and Techniques – C.R. Kothari
  2. Research Methodology – Krishnaswamy O.R.
  3. Business Research Methods – Donald R Cooper and Pamela S Schindler
  4. Research methods in business – Nandagopal / Rajan
  5. Research Method for Business, a skill building approach – Uma Sekaram
  6. Research methods – Donald H. McBurney
  7. Statistics for management – Levin and Reuben
  8. Research methods for management – Dr. S. Shahjahan


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