I) Constituents of Business Environment:
Political ideology –
Economic Policy Legal System –
Level of Technology
Competition –
Social & Cultural Factors

II) Evolution of Business Environment in India Pre British Period –
British Period – From Independence to Indira Gandhi Era –
Rajiv Gandhi & Chandra Shekhar Period Post 1990 –
Liberalization & Globalization of Indian Economy.

III) International Business Environment & India
Change in Political Systems – International Treaties & Impact
On Indian Economy – Challenges for Indian Economy.

IV) Indian Response to the Evolving Business Environment
Government Policies since the year 2000 – Global Capital
Flows, Banking & Capital Markets – Investment Opportunities
for Indian Industry – Response of Indian Industrialists.


I)Law related to Industrial Relation and Industrial Disputes
i. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
(Definitions, authorities award and settlement, strikes,
lockouts, layoffs, retrenchment and closure)
ii. The Trade Unions Act, 1926.

II) Laws related to health, Safety and Welfare
The factories Act, 1948
(Provisions related to approval, licensing, registration,
Inspecting staff, health safety and welfare)

III) Social Legislations
Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 (Committees Councils
and various benefits)
ii. Provision Act, 1948 (Schemes, administration and
determination of dues)

IV) Laws related to Compensation Management
The Payment of Wages Act, 1948 (Objectives, Definitions
authorized deductions)
ii) The minimum Wages Act, 1948
iii) The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972


I)Advanced Spreadsheets.
A) Multiple spreadsheets
1. Creation and Using temples
2. Creating and Linking Multiple Spreadsheets.
3. Add Headers / Footers to a Workbook.
4. Create Formulas that use references to cells in different worksheets.
5. Creating and using named ranges.
B) Functions
1. Financial Functions FV, PV, PMT, PPMT, IPML, NPER, RATE, NPV IRR
2. Database Functions VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP
3. Conditional Logic functions IF, COUNTIF, SUMIF
C) Data Analysis
1. Using Scenarios, Creating and Managing a scenario.
2. Using Goal Seek.
3. Using Solver
4. Pivot Tables – Building Pivot Tables, Pivot Table regions, Rearranging
Pivot Table
5. Creating simple macros.

II) Web Designing Using HTML
1. Evolution of HTML.
2. Concept of Hyper Text Tags
3. Structure of an HTML file
4. Basic Tags
5. Formatting text Logical and Physical tags
6. Style Sheets
7. Creating Lists and Tables
8. Adding graphics with and without text, alignment.
9. Creating links internal and external, mail links
10.Creating Forms.
11.Creating Forms.
12.Understanding How software like Front Page, Dream Weaver Create
HTML files.
13.Uploading HTML Pages using SW like Cute FTP, WS FTP

III) E-Commerce

1. Definition Diff. between Ecommerce and E-business
2. E-commerce infrastructure, Packet switching, TCP / IP addresses
Domain Names.
3. Development of web browsers Hypertext
4. Features of E-commerce (Advertising)
5. Types of E-commerce (B2C, B2B, C2C, P2P)
6. Business Models in E-Commerce (Revenue, Advertising Subscription
Transaction Fee, Sales Revenue, Affiliate Revenue)
7. Major B2c models (Portal, Etailer, Content Provider Transaction
Broker, Market Creator, Service Provider community provider.
8. E-commerce Security : Integrity, Non Repudiation, Authenticity,
Confidentiality, Privacy, Availability.
9. Eneryption : Definition, Symmetric Key Eneryption, DES (Data
Eneryption Standard) PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Signatures,
Digital Signatures, SSL.
10.Payment Systems : Digital Cash, Online stored value digital
accumulating balance payment, Digital credit accounts, digital
11.How an Online credit card transaction works SEI protocol.
12.Limitation of E-commerce

1. Introduction to MIS
2. Meaning Basic concepts.
3. PS Introduction and Understanding the concept.
4. ERP what is ERP? What are its advantages?


Meaning and scope of managerial economics
– relationship to economics theory relationship with decision theory
– role of managerial Economics
– objectives and constraints of the firm
– introduction to risk, asymmetric information and game theory

II) Demand Analysis
Meaning of demand – Market demand function Demand curve, factors
affecting demand – variation and increase / decrease in demand –
Elasticity of demand Graphical representation of price elasticity of
Estimation of demand Numerical problems for measurement of

III) Production and Costs
Meaning of production – Types of production function – Importance of
production function in managerial decision – making Application of
production function in productive sectors (service and manufacturing)
Economics of scale and scope.
Importance of cost in managerial decision – making Economic concepts
of cost Functional form of short run and long run cost. Estimation and
alternative methods of estimation of cost – LAC as a decision making
tool. Impact of learning curve.

IV) Market Structures
Meaning of market structure. Need for analyzing market structure types
of markets.
A. Perfect competition & Monopoly
Features – Representative firm and industry – 1 quilibrium in short and
long run – Price and output determination using diagrams – Normal
profits, losses and supernormal profits in short run-1 ong run and
normal profit – Merits and limitations of perfect markets.
B. Oligopoly and Monopolistic Competition
Oligopoly – definition and characteristics – Collusion and cartel – Non –
price competition – Price stickiness and kinked demand.
Monopolistic competition – definition and characteristics – Equilibrium –Price and output determination


I) Elementary Financial Mathematics
A.P., G.P., and sums of their first n terms, Problems with
business application. Simple interest, compound interest,
interest compounded more than once a year nominal
effective and continuous rates of interest.
Immediate Ordinary) annuity, its present value and future
value. Equated Monthly Installments (EMI) using reducing
interest system amortization of loans.
Sinking Fund. Depreciation of assets.
Functions constant function linear function, step function xn,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Business and
Economics functions such as demand supply, total revenue
average revenue total cost, average cost and profit
function. Equilibrium point, Break even analysis
Notion of permutations and combinations.
(Problems to be solved with calculator. Use a logarithm
tables to be avoided.)

II) Matrices and Determinants
Matrices, Matrix Operations (additional of two matrices,
sealer multiple of a matrix, matrix multiplication transpose of
a matrix)
Determinant of a matrix of order 2 and 3, elementary
properties of determinant. Solving a system of linear
equations (up to 3 variables) using Cramer’s rule and
application to business problems.
Elementary row and column operations on matrices,
inverse of a matrix (up to order 3). Application of matrices to
Leontief’s open input-output model Linear inequality (upto 2
variables) and their Graphs.

III) Derivatives and their Applications
Derivatives as a measure of rate. Derivatives of functions
constant function, xn, ex, ax, log x. Rules of derivatives.
Scalar multiplication. Sum difference, product and quotient.
Second order derivatives.
Application of derivatives marginal cost, marginal revenue,
elasticity of demand, maxima and minima for functions in
Economics and Business.
Functions of two variable and Integration
Functions of two variable with examples from Economics
and Commerce such as Cobb-Douglas and other production
functions, demand functions involving two commodities. First
and second order partial derivatives. Marginal functions and
their simple applications in Economics. Maxima and minima
of functions of two variables using second order partial
derivative criterion. Constrained maxima and minima (one
constraint only) using Lagrange’s multiplier.
Simple applications in Economics and Commerce : Marginal
physical productivity of labo0ur and capital, demand analysis
of complementary and competitive commodities partial
elasticity. Optimization of functions of two variable in
Economics and Business.
Integration as the reverse process of derivatives, standard
formulae integration of constant function, xn, ex, ax, log x.
Rules for integrals – sum, difference and scalar
multiplications. Simple problems (integration techniques
such as finding total cost from marginal cost, total revenue
from marginal revenue Definite integrations. Simple
problems (No properties). Applications such producer’s
surplus. Consumer’s surplus. Present value and future value
of a continuously compounded annuity.


I)Introduction & Importance of Cost Accounting :
Cost, costing cost accounting: Cost ascertainment : Cost control : Cost classification :
Reporting Distinction between cost & financial accountancy : Advantages
of cost accounting, Objectives of cost accounting.

II) A. Elements of Cost material – labour – overheads
B. Bases of Cost Classification :
On the basis of :-
Behavior Variability :-
Element of cost including direct & indirect concept
C. Determination of Total Cost
Cost structure
Cost sheets
Composition of selling price
III) Reconciliation between Cost and Financial Records
Meaning and Definition – Need for reconciliation – Causes of
disagreement – Procedure and preparation of statement of reconciliation

IV) Elementary Principles and Techniques of Marginal Costing
(Excluding Problems on Managerial Decisions)
A. Elementary Principles of Marginal Costing :
Meaning – Features of marginal costing – Advantages of marginal
costing Limitations of marginal costing – Concept of profit.
B. Techniques of Marginal Costing
Contribution – Profit / volume ratio – Breakeven point Margin of safety
– Cost volume profit analysis


I)Environment : Definition and Composition :
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere Atmosphere, Biosphere.
Biogeochemical cycles – Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrological
Cycle. Man and Nature relation and interaction with respect to
Food, Clothing Shelter and Occupation : Concept of Ecology
and Ecosystem.

II) Resources and Wealth –
Meaning, Types of Resources,
Exploitation of Resources, Use of Technology and its impact
on Natural Environment, wealth – meaning, Distinction
between wealth and resources, Optimum Conversion of
Resources into wealth : Anthropogenic Waste – its effects,
Man-made Industrial waste.

III) Environmental Degradation –
Meaning causes : Degradation
of Urban Land, Forest and Agricultural Land due to natural
causes and human interference : Global Warming, Problems of
non-degradable Waste – Electronic Devices, Plastic and Manmade
fibers : Environmental Assessment – Environment
Impact Assessment (EIA). Environmental Auditing.
Environmental Legislation in DInai. Carbon Bank.

IV) Environmental Management :
Meaning, development and environmental linkages, Environmental concerns in India. The need for sustainable development. Actions for environmental
protection : national and international initiatives – emerging
environment management strategies Indian initiatives –
Environmental Protection Movements and NGOs in India.
Disaster Management – meaning need and Planning with
reference to Flood. Storms, Tsunami, Cyclones and
Earthquakes to India.


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