Assael distinguished four types of buying behaviour based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of differences among brands.

  1. Complex Buying Behaviour: Complex buying behaviour involves a three-step process; first, the buyer develops beliefs about the product. Second, he or she develops attitudes about the product. Third, he or she makes a thoughtful choice. When the customer is involved in complex buying, they are aware of significant- differences in brands. This is the case when the products are expensive, bought frequently risky and highly self expressive. In this case the customer does not know much about that category. For example, a person buying a personal computer may not know what attributes to look for. Many product features carry no meaning, unless the buyer has done some research.


  1. Dissonance – Reducing Buyer Behaviour: Sometimes the consumer is highly involved in a purchase but sees little difference in brands. The purchase is expensive, infrequent, and risky; therefore the consumer is highly involved. In this case, the buyer will go around to learn what is available but will buy when he gets a good price. After the purchase, the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain odd features or hearing favourable things about other brands. The consumer will be alert to information that supports his or her decision. In this case, the consumer first acted, then acquired new beliefs, then ended up with a set of attitudes. Marketing communications should supply beliefs and evaluations that help feel good about his or her brand choice.


  1. Habitual Buying Behaviour: There are many Products which are bought under conditions of low involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. Take a simple example of salt. Consumers have little involvement in this product category. They go to the shop and reach for the brand. If they keep reaching for the same brand, it is out of habit, riot strong brand loyalty. It is-evident that consumers have low involvement with most low-cost, frequently Purchased Products. With these products, consumer behaviour does not pass through the ‘normal sequence of belief, attitude and, behaviour. Consumers do not search extensively for information, evaluate characteristics and make decisions on which brand to buy. Instead they are passive recipients of information the television or print ads. The repetition of ads creates brand familiarity rather than brand conviction. After making the purchase, they may not even evaluate the choice because they are not highly involved with the product. For low involvement products, the buying, process begins with brand beliefs formed by passive learning & is followed by purchase behaviour which may be followed by evaluation.


  1. Variety seeking Buying Behaviour : There has some buying situation that an characterized by low involvement but significant brand differences. In such cases the consumer often goes into a lot of brand switching. Take the example of chocolates. The consumers has some beliefs about chocolates chooses a brand of chocolates without much evaluation, & evaluates the -product during consumption. Next time, the consumer may reach for another brand out of a wish for a different taste. In this case the brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than dissatisfaction.
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