In multiprogrammed batch systems, the user cannot interact with the program during its execution. In time-sharing or multitasking systems, multiple jobs are executed by the CPU switching between them, but the switching occurs so frequently that the user may interact with each program while it is running. Time-sharing operating...
The user prepares a job (which consists of program, data and some control information), submits it to the computer operator and receives the output after the program is executed. The job is usually punched on cards and the output is usually printed. To speed up processing, jobs with similar...
An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Main functions of an operating system are: The operating system is an interface between the user and the computer provides access to the to the utility...
DMA (Direct Memory Access): is a procedure for transferring data directly between controller and memory without the help of CPU. DMA device: is like a separate CPU with functions related to data transfer, such as: – shuts the CPU down for short periods – seizes control of the...
An interrupt is a signal that causes the computer to alter its normal flow of instruction execution. eg. divide by zero, time out, I/O operation The interrupt automatically transfers control to an interrupt processing routine which takes some action in response to the condition that caused the interrupt,...
The resources such as CPU, memory, I/O channels are needed by all user jobs, and their allocation is handled automatically by the operating system. Some problems to be handled by the operating system are: – mutual exclusion – process synchronization, – deadlock avoidance – security and protection
Real memory is divided into partitions, each process is assigned to a different partition: – Fixed partitions – Variable partitions – Relocatable partitions
In a virtual memory system, user programs are allowed to use a large continuous virtual address space (virtual memory), which may be even larger than the total amount of the real memory available. Portions of the virtual memory are mapped to the real memory as they are needed by...
Bootstrap program: initializes CPU, loads OS kernel into memory OS waits for event, signaled by an interrupt either from a hardware or software (system call, monitor call), interrupt vector Dual mode of operation: user mode, kernel mode (supervisor mode) Hardware Protection (base, limit registers)
Include: – simple command language – a menu – graphical representation of programs and data – I/O routines (service routines)
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