Individual attitude are formed over time as a result of repeated personal experiences with ideas, situations or people. One of the very important ways to understand individual behaviour in an organization is that of studying attitude, which is situationally specific and learned.
An attitude may change as a result of new information. A manager may have a negative attitude about a new employee because of his lack of job-related experience. After working with a new person, a manager may come to realise that he is actually very talented and subsequently may develop a more positive attitude toward him.
People in an organization form attitude about many things such as about their salary, promotion possibilities, superiors, fringe benefits, food in the canteen, uniform etc. Especially some important attitudes are job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement.
Job satisfaction is an attitude reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled .by his or her work. Extensive research conducted on job satisfaction has indicated that personal .factors such as an individual’s needs and aspirations determine this attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as relationships with co-workers and supervisors, working conditions, work policies and compensation.
A satisfied employee also tends to be absent less often, makes positive contributions, and stays with the organization. In contrast, a dissatisfied employee may be absent more often may experience stress that disrupts co-workers, and may keep continually looking for another job.
Organizational factors that influence employee satisfaction include pay, promotion, policies and procedures of the organizations and working conditions. Group factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors also influence job- satisfaction. Similarly, satisfaction depends on individual factors like individual’s needs and aspirations. If employees are satisfied with their job, it may lead to low employee turnover and less absenteeism and vice-versa.
Organizational Commitment and Involvement
Two other important work-related attitudes arc organizational commitment and involvement. Organizational commitment is the individual’s feeling of identification with and attachment to an organization. Involvement refers to a person’s willingness to be a team member and work beyond the usual standards of the job. An employee with little involvement is motivated by extrinsic motivational factor and an employee with strong involvement is motivated by intrinsic motivational factors.
There are a number of factors that lead to commitment and involvement. Both may increase with an employee’s age and years with the organization, with his sense of job security and participation in decision-making. If the organization treats its employees fairly and provides reasonable rewards and job security, employees are more likely to be satisfied and committed. Involving employees in decision-making can also help to increase commitment. In particular, designing jobs, which are interesting and stimulating, can enhance job involvement.