Approaches to Product Design

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Designing for the customer
•            Industrial design
•            Voice of the customer
•            Quality function deployment (QFD)
ii.         Designing for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA)
“Over-the-wall approach”
Concurrent engineering
Design for Manufacturing (DFM) Design for Assembly (DFA)
iii.        Designing for ease of production (or for producibility or manufacturability)
Specification
Standardisation
Simplification
iv.        Designing for Quality
Designing for robustness (or robust design)
Designing for productionModular design
Designing for automation
Designing for reliability
Designing for Ergonomics
Designing for environmental protection
Designing for recycling
Designing of disassembly (DFD)
Designing for mass customisation
Delayed differentiation and modular designs are two tactics used to make mass customisation possible.
Other issues in product design are (a) Computer aided design (CAD), (b) Value engineering or value analysis which
•            Computer aided design: Use of computer graphics for designing the product helps to generate a number of alternative designs and identify the best alternative which meets the designer’s criteria.
•            Value engineering/Value analysis: Concerned with the improvement of design and specifications at various stages of product planning and development.

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